Monitoring Quality in Arab Higher Education
The Supreme Council of Universities grants licenses to public universities and other higher-education institutions, including professional and technical institutions. After council approval, the Ministry of Higher Education reviews an application, which then must be approved by the Council of Ministers, a presidential-level cabinet, and the country’s president.
The council requires the following conditions to grant a license for operation of a higher-education institution:
- Proof that enough land is either rented or owned to have a university campus
- The list of disciplines the university will offer
- The names of members of the university’s board of directors, which has an operational, authoritative role
- Names of those who would sit on the university’s council, which has more of a consulting role and which must include one representative from the minister
The ministry representative monitors the university’s development and submits regular reports to the ministry. The secretary general of the Supreme Council has the authority to cancel the license and close a university if it fails to meet any of the requirements. (The ministry has not closed any universities.)
The Supreme Council of Private Universities grants licenses to private universities and other higher-education institutions, including professional or technical institutions, to open and operate. (For further details of the regulations governing public universities, click here. For private university regulations, click here.)
The National Authority to Ensure the Quality of Education and Accreditation is responsible for monitoring the quality of education at an institution after a license has been granted. The authority checks on each university every two years and conducts a fuller assessment every five years. The authority decides if a license will be renewed according to the results of the assessment. The assessment has 12 requirements. Universities must provide information on their strategic plan, annual budget, scientific research, the number of faculty members, faculty members’ qualifications, structure of the administration, teaching and curriculum.
No clear mechanism has been established to prevent conflicts of interest and corruption in regulating education, an Al-Fanar Media examination of laws and regulations and consultations with experts found.
Twenty-four public universities and 24 private universities operate in Egypt, according to 2016 statistics from the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. In addition, 53 public technical and vocational institutes and 11 public community colleges operate in the country.