The professional opportunities for refugees are scarce, despite longstanding international pledges of support, in Jordan and Lebanon. In Turkey, the employment situation is somewhat brighter.
For many refugees in the Arab region, entrepreneurship is a chance to build an independent life. But doing so is not easy in many host countries.
A faculty-student alliance at New York University charges its Abu Dhabi campus is still at high risk of forced-labor practices: A university report has a much more positive view.
Two studies found that women in Gulf countries are not focused on employment in their pursuit of academic degrees, but are optimistic about their futures.
Professors have fled, students are dropping out or struggling to balance study and jobs, and businesses complain that graduates lack skills.
More students are seeking advanced degrees, hoping for academic jobs, but many find only part-time positions.
Thousands of Syrian teachers have arrived in Turkey to escape the war. Still, many of them found it difficult to find a job due several obstacles.
Advisory groups urge the new government to put more focus on helping the newcomers learn the German language.
Talent Beyond Borders matches talented refugees with jobs and helps them with logistics, like obtaining visas.
With unemployment high in the kingdom, sources say young people increasingly are buying fake papers and turning to refugee-smuggling rings.